Thursday, December 29, 2016

The Andromeda Galaxy

What is the nearest major galaxy to our own Milky Way Galaxy? Andromeda. In fact, our Galaxy is thought to look much like Andromeda. Together these two galaxies dominate the Local Group of galaxies. The diffuse light from Andromedais caused by the hundreds of billions of stars that compose it. The several distinct stars that surround Andromeda's image are actually stars in our Galaxy that are well in front of the background object. Andromeda is frequently referred to as M31 since it is the 31st object on Messier's list of diffuse sky objects. M31 is so distant it takes about two million years for light to reach us from there. Although visible without aid, the featured image of M31 is a digital mosaic of several frames taken with a small telescope. Much about M31 remains unknown, including exactly how many billions of years it will before it collides with our home galaxy.
Image Credit & Copyright: Farmakopoulos Antonis

9 comments:

  1. 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

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  2. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light years...zero-speed... The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

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  3. ...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... gravitation, dimensions and inertia: the Matter... The electromagnetic radiation: quanta (pieces) of energy in discrete amounts (minimum and independents), photons, which move in waves... Why energy quanta (photons) are attracted by gravitational fields of "stellar lenses" curving their trajectories and move on?...go ahead because they have inertia...and are attracted because the Energy also has Gravitation, but does not manifest because it no emits Graviton, or emits in imperceptible degree, because its has to be condensed enough like in matter for that, but it is sensitive to Gravitation from Matter emits... Energy and Gravitation "associated"...and...the Gravitational Force is another manifestation, unknown yet, from Energy...(no "curvature" of that called "space-time" relativistic)... When was finished contraction, F=G((m1*m2)/d²), the pre-early Universe; (no relativistic "singularity" but it was a Sphere with dimensions and outside the Infinite Empty Space); was need have as its starting point towards the expansion, one first action: when all Universe´s Matter was almost infinitely compressed and hot with all subatomic particles in direct contact without empty space among them, then →Gravity← becomes ←Antigravity→, those hyper-dense Matter becomes Energy ("infinites": Temperature + Energy + suddenly Antigravity = Big-Bang)...already again how a New Universe in expansion cooling, appears again the Matter from Energy...and again antigravity becomes normal Gravity... Its particle exchange, the theoretical Graviton yet...maybe "quanta of gravitational energy"... The Energy (e=mc²) is sensitive to Gravitation but hardly emits Graviton... The Matter, which is condensed Energy (m=e/c²), emits now Gravitons proportionally to its density... The Matter with normal density, naturally, emits few Gravitons (weak intensity of gravitational force). But...if someday could transform some of matter, not in Energy by annihilation with antimatter but entirely in Gravitational Force with an exponential Gravitons (or antigravitons) emission...would have a way to amplify the Gravitational Force a certain amount of mass... Light (photons) can be directed with a mirror... Gravity (gravitophotons) perhaps also can be directed someday the same such as light in a car´s headlight placed in ceiling looking downwards... This would be necessary for having artificial gravitational attraction only toward the ceiling in all the floors of the ship, each down´s floor must have less own gravity-power because receives gravitational attraction from all up´s floors. This can be difficult to observe in Universe because, although with unequal intensity, there are Gravitational Forces actuating from all directions. But in...gravitational transformers...for spacecrafts to thousands G of constant acceleration...

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  4. (2)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... The Electromagnetic and Gravitational Forces have some obvious similarities (fulfill the Law of Inverse of the Square) as both are "inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separate"...distance between the poles of two magnets the Electromagnetic...and distance between the centers of two masses the Gravitational... Just as now can using the Electromagnetic Force for obtain different voltages, currents and electrical powers...electrical transformers...perhaps someday when that mysterious Gravitational Force reveal its secrets, can also using it and amplify its emission (converting the mass exponentially in Gravitons) somehow for obtain different intensities and gravitational powers...gravitational transformers... Spacecrafts with indestructible structures and the distribution of a building of housing flats (where are the foundations would the nozzles)... Antigravitational fields directed forward would go shoving and accelerating the space´s dust until reaching (the dust) almost ship-speed the dust´s cloud matter-feeder ("fuel") always placed at ship´s front, leading dust with Gravitational peripheral fields; already the dust with slow differential-speed between dust and ship (each dust´s particle already does not is a bullet); towards the ship converters matter/antimatter, where at half of matter would transform in antimatter to feed the insatiable demand for the voracious annihilation rocket engines ejecting the appreciable mass of the Pions, produced in large quantities, through the nozzles to the speed of light...a rocket´s thrust=linear momentum (mass*speed) ejection by nozzle in each second...and maintaining indefinitely to the ship at thousands G of constant acceleration... Powerful gravitational fields inside the living areas would counteract the HUGE CONSTANT ACCELERATION of the ship, keeping them to 1 G...

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  5. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (times to reach light-speed)... 1g (9.8 mts/sec²)=354 days ...↓... 0.5g (4.9 mts/sec²)=1.94 years ...↓... 0.25g (2.45 mts/sec²)=3.88 years ...↓... 0.1g (98 cms/sec²)=9.7 years ...↓... 0.01g (9.8 cms/sec²)=97 years ...↓... 0.001g (9.8 mms/sec²)=970 years ______ Huge constant acceleration the ship, living areas to 1g: inside the living areas..."the same as going submerged in water"... ↓↓↓↓g (motors)...less...↑↑↑g (gravitational transformers)=↓g... ...↨... 2g (19.6 mts/sec²)=177 days ...↨... 10g (98 mts/sec²)=35.4 days ...↨... 100g (980 mts/sec²)=3.54 days ...↨... 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)=8.5 hours ...↨...10000g (98 kms/sec²)=51 minutes ...↨... 50000g (490 kms/sec²)=10.2 minutes ...↨... 100000g (980 kms/sec²)=5.1 minutes ...↨... 1 million G (9800 kms/sec²)=30.6 seconds... ((typewrite: interstellar travel constant acceleration))

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  6. ...3D Bioprinting-Immortality (mom-printer)...on wake up, but...if I am, when I was 18 years old...and still so I remember all my Life in the ancient body before... On the body the important is the head, in the head the important is the brain, in the brain the important is...The Memory...which is, along with Genes and Image, simply, what we are... Your recorded Memory to the new, young, perfect, identical bioprinted body and...Immortality...already the accidents do not matter. The Memory is the "soul" (software), our body only is the "automobile" that transport us (hardware)...to what extent are we willing to recognize a friend who has received an orthopedic implant after an accident?. Until 1 leg?, besides of leg the 2 arms?, besides of this the chest?, besides of this...?, where until we still considering to it the same person?... Ultimately, already outside from the physical body, the Memory remains... Wherever our Memory goes, over there we are... Memory-Genes-Photo►Bioprinted Body►Space... Record the Memory in a electronic format and stored by Law in the Official Data Banks, along with Genes and a Photo of each one, waiting there are in the Future... 1: BIOPRINTED BODIES genetically identical, in image and all to the originals, in which "revitalize" to the electronic sleepers... 2: SPACE where to live a new and Immortal Life in some Universe´s habitable place. (But...is that..."it" already would be not "Me"...it would be a "cyborg/clone/avatar/frankenstein"... Are you sure?, because to sleep, lose consciousness, "it" disappears every night (dies)...and wake up "it" appears every morning (rebirths)...and our MEMORY instantly auto-recognize us, the same in our own original body which in our new body... If we would have lost the Memory...we would have lost the Life). Have to accelerate Research about Memory and the Space´s Colonization... Immortality comes...

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  7. ...interstellar travel (laser)... L=2*3.14*r...that beam of a laser pointer that turn 180º, from horizon to horizon, in 1 second and 4 imaginary semicircular screens located, for example, to the distances from Earth... 1: 95493 kms... 2: Moon (384403 kms)... 3: Sun (150 Million kms, 1.5*10^8)... 4: Andromeda: (2 million light years...19 Trillion kms, 1.9*10^19, Universal Large Scale: 1 billion=1 million of millions, 10¹²)... The mark of laser pointer to reach, would move alongside each screen to an angular speed of 180º/second and a linear speed, based on the light, of...(3.14*r)/c... km 95493= 1c... Moon= 4c... Sun= 1570c... Andromeda galaxy= 198 Billion (1.98*10^14)c... If turn laser pointer to the right, why is going to bend each laser beam to the left, not to exceed c, from km 95493, radius "frontier" in which the speed of laser mark on the screeen = c ?... Decreasing magnitudes have a close limit, but growing...have an "infinite" limit, to our knowledge, understood here as "infinite", at least, an exorbitant figure...as with the TEMPERATURE (-273 ºC → "infinite")... MATTER (quark → "infinite")... TIME (0 → "infinite")... SPACE (0 → "infinite")...why it would be SPEED different?...(0 kms/sec → "infinite")...

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  8. ...global warming ("good" no longer spend cold)... pouring pollutants greenhouse effect into the air is melting the poles. Besides on melting permafrost will liberate into the Atmosphere million Tm of methane with big greenhouse effect. This large amount of freshwater to the ocean could stop deep sea currents which depend on a delicate balance between fresh and salty water and temperatures, (ThermoHaline Circulation) vertical starting in polar areas from surface ↓↓ downwards and continuing go away slow and cold by the bottom loading nutrients and carrying large heat quantities. Deep sea currents move 90% of all the oceans water. Heat from the Sun reaches the equator and currents distribute it throughout the Planet, then...goodbye to our warm climate. The horizontal oceanic currents on surface produced by winds (move 10% of all the oceans water), rotating (Gyres) all by the Coriolis effect, and some others in all levels by the rotation of the Earth from West→East, like the Antartic circumpolar current, will continue...but the vertical currents produced by the sinking of horizontal currents of dense salty water that reaches the poles where the water is sweeter, less salty, and form cold bottom currents going heat transvasing between different latitudes would stop (why are the Grand Banks Fishing in cold latitudes?...because over there is the POLAR ICE, freshwater, different sweet/salty density, salty dense water arriving and sinks in a little salty water environment...nutrients that are removed from the bottom cold water and rise to the surface, phytoplankton that feed on nutrients, zooplankton that feed on phytoplankton, fish that feed on zooplankton)... No polar ice over there will be no vertical currents...could reduce the rise of nutrients to the surface and therefore PHYTOPLANKTON SHORTAGE MAY DECREASING ITS VITAL CONTRIBUTION WITH OXYGEN TO THE ATMOSPHERE (90%)...fish...WINDS in some places of more warm latitudes carry far the surface´s hot water permitting the outcropping ↑↑ to surface of water and plankton (the upwelling) from the bottom cold current coming from the pole, forming other Banks fishing (and other zones where phytoplankton oxygen produces), and returning by surface again like warm water towards the poles completing the THC circuit... Without polar ice the sea it could almost stratified into horizontal layers, less salty upwards...more salty downwards with little mixing, little energetic movement of water masses in vertical which is what removes fertilizer nutrients from the bottom cold water, and also produces the THC... Besides lowering salinity of the sea, for that great contribution with freshwater to melt the poles, will increase evaporation (ebullioscopy: the less salt has, more evaporates) producing gigantic storm clouds as have never seen, that together with changing of the ocean currents, could cool areas of the Planet causing a new ice age... Warming...invasion of tropical diseases carried by their transmitter agents, already without the "general Winter" containing them would fall upon the World like a plague...can produce a cooling, a new ice age, like living at the North Pole...and less oxygen in the Atmosphere... It´s not known what will be worse... Go choosing.

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  9. ...inter-Universe travel constant acceleration (parallel universes)... Big-Bang!!...whether separation among galaxies, where all stay in the expansive surface of sphere, goes accelerating by the supposed antigravity of the supposed dark energy (perhaps accelerating because they attract with the galaxies from the Neighbor Universe)...perhaps expand until it collide with another shock wave from another Big-Bang of multi-Universes...(why was there clustering all the Universe´s ENERGY in 1 only sphere?, does not only there is 1 star...multiple spheres of energy here and there...each sphere a Local Universe with its Big-Bang...so, the UNIVERSE would be like a galaxy with its stars, each "star" a Local Universe)...which divided up the same Infinite EMPTY SPACE (as a group of balloons, each one separated from each other, to be swelling...the space inside and out, the Infinite Empty Space...and each balloon an independent Local Universe)... And if Gravitation shall get to stop the expansion, it´s evident that the fragments approximation (galaxies in apocalyptic collisions) would start among them with those nearest over the sphere´s surface, forming hyper-massive "clumps" of Matter ever increasing until the start of major gravitational attraction with other "clumps" from the opposite end of sphere´s diameter already implosive...starting implosion in terminal phase of our and then uninhabitable Local Universe (maybe by then would have completed the inter-Universe exodus and there would be no one in this)... Exit to direction at 180º from center increasing our radius, distance where there was the Big-Bang, in the opposite direction going towards the center of sphere would get more "inside" of our own Universe instead of going out. Maybe "nearer" the next Universe going in the same direction of expansion, that going at counter-expansion to "antipodes" (Galaxy Abell 1835...13200 million light years...to 1 Million G, 9800 kms/sec², at halfway maximum hyperluminal-speed = 3.7 light-years/second (!!!), total travel time = 226 years) of our... The Travel of all travels... Ship "Exodus-1"...heading 180º from center towards the Infinity...constant acceleration until to detect at front galaxies with strong differential deflection, discounting our own hyperluminal-speed, toward the Violet...the shock wave from our New Universe come to greet us...(and, no sooner said than done, launched themselves towards the gloomy darkness of Infinite)... Parallel Universes, we only carry the truth... Here we go...goooooo!►...

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